52 Documents in 52 Weeks #38 – George Longcor’s 1850 Census

Person of Interest: George Longcor
Relationship: 4th great grandfather


Source Citation: 1850 U. S. census, Sussex County, New Jersey, population schedule, Sparta, dwelling 83, family 85, George Longcor; digital image, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 29 July 2017); citing NARA microfilm publication M432, roll 464.


Document Description: These documents are part of the Seventh Census of the United States which was taken in 1850. It is the seventh census taken since 1790. The U.S. census counts every resident in the United States. It is mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution and takes place every 10 years. The U.S. Census Bureau is responsible for taking the censuses. After 72 years (and not before owing to privacy reasons), the records are released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration.  The U.S. Census Bureau provides the interested researcher a great overview of each census. In the 1850 overview, we find that Zachary Taylor (right, photo source: http://www.census.gov) was president on census day which was June 1, 1850, that that six schedules were to be used to collect the information requested by the Congress and that results needed to be returned to the secretary of the interior by November 1, 1850. As opposed to the 1840 census, in this census every free person’s name was to be listed, not just the head of the household. Unfortunately, while every name is listed, every relationship to head of household is not. That won’t happen until the 1880 census.

According to the 1850 overview site, the details of the enumeration were this:

“… the board [was authorized] to prepare forms and schedules for collecting information on mines, agriculture, commerce, manufactures, education, and other topics, as well as “exhibit a full view of the pursuits, industry, education, and resources of the country.

“The number of population inquiries grew in the 1850 census. Every free person’s name was to be listed, not just the head of the household. The marshals also collected additional “social statistics,” including information on taxes, schools, crime, wages, value of the estate, etc. and data on mortality.

“Each marshal was also responsible for subdividing his district into “known civil divisions,” such as counties, townships, or wards, and ensuring that his assistants’ returns were completed properly.”

Both Ancestry.com (fee site) and FamilySearch.org (free) offers digitized copies of the census and are searchable by name. The History and Growth of the United States Census: 1790 – 1890 was a document prepared for the Senate Committee on the Census in 1900 and as written by Carroll D. Wright, the Commissioner of Labor, and William C. Hunt, Chief Statistician of the 12th census. If you’re into statistics or reading up on the historical background of the censuses, this is a great document to dig into.


Documents Scan/Transcription: Numbers relate to columns on the population schedule.

Page Header
Schedule I. Free Inhabitants in the township of Sparta in the County of Sussex, State of New Jersey enumerated by me, on the 28th day of August 1850. John B. Easton, Ass’t Marshal.

Page Detail
lines 40-42, George Longcor, Hannah, and John [respectively with ; between]

Place of Abode
1. Dwelling number in order of visitation: 83
2. Family number in order of visitation: 85
3. The Name of every Person whose usual place of abode on the first day of Jun, 1850, was in this family: George Longcor; Hannah —-; John —-

Description
4. Age: 58; 59; 16
5. Sex: M; F; M
6. Color: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Occupation
7. Profession, Occupation, or Trade of each Male Person over 15 years of age: Farmer; [blank]; none

Real Estate
8. Value of Real Estate owned: 5,000; [blank]; [blank]

Nativity
9. Place of Birth. Naming the State, Territory, or Country: N. Jersey; NJ; NJ

Additional Information
10. Married within the year: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
11. Attended School within the year: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
12. Persons over 20 yrs of age who cannot read & write: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
13. Whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]


Analysis: The above listings/transcriptions are a bit hard to read, I admit it. So why go through the pain of typing it all out? It forced me to look at every single box and tick mark and code and notation. So, let’s put the above in a more user-friendly, narrative format:

On 01 June 1850, George Longcor (58) was living with Hannah (59) and a young man named John (16). The family was living in Sparta Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, when John B. Easton arrived to enumerator them on 28 August 1850. In order of visitation, the family was labeled as living in dwelling #83 and as family #85.

George was working as a farmer, Hannah had no occupation listed and John’s occupation was listed as “none.” All were listed as being born in New Jersey. George was listed as having $5,000 in real estate value. The family was healthy in that nothing was filled in for the column for blindness, deaf and dumbness, idiocy, insanity, pauper, or convict. The census indicated that George, Hannah and John Longcor could read and write.

The 1850 census does not tells the viewer the specific relationships within the family group, so other evidence is needed to prove that George and Hannah were husband and wife and that John was their child. However, the instructions to the enumerators directed that “the names are to be written beginning with the father and mother; or if either, or both, be dead, begin with some other ostensible head of the family; to be followed, as far as practicable, with the name of the oldest child residing at home, then the next oldest, and so on to the youngest, then the other inmates, lodgers and borders, laborers, domestics, and servants.”

Nothing pops out as being odd with this family. However, it doesn’t hurt to go look at the enumerator instructions to see how things were to be reported. The IPUMS, which stands for the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, website has a handy place to look up all enumerator instructions for the 1850 census. We find the schedules listed that relate to this census:

  1. Population
  2. Slave inhabitants
  3. Mortality
  4. Agriculture
  5. Statistics of Industry
  6. Social Statistics

Some of the instructions found there include:

  • By the term family is meant, either one person living separately in a house, or a part of a house, and providing for him or herself, or several persons living together in a house, or in part of a house, upon one common means of support, and separately from others in similar circumstances. A widow living alone and separately providing for herself, or 200 individuals living together and provided for by a common head, should each be numbered as one family.
  • The resident inmates of a hotel, jail, garrison, hospital, an asylum, or other similar institution, should be reckoned as one family.
  • The names of every member of a family who may have died since the 1st day of June is to be entered and described as if living, but the name of any person born since the 1st day of June is to be omitted.
  • Under heading 8 insert the value of real estate owned by each individual enumerated. You are to obtain the value of real estate by inquiry of each individual who is supposed to own real estate, be the same located where it may, and insert the amount in dollars. No abatement of the value is to be made on account of any lien or incumbrance [sic] thereon in the nature of debt.
  • Heading 13, entitled “Deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict.” The assistant marshal should ascertain if there be any person in the family deaf, dumb, idiotic, blind, insane, or pauper. If so, who? And insert the term “deaf and dumb,” “blind,” “insane,” and “idiotic,” opposite the name of such persons, as the fact may be. When persons who had been convicted of crime within the year reside in families on the 1st of June, the fact should be stated, as in the other cases of criminals; but, as the interrogatory might give offense, the assistants had better refer to the country record for information on this head, and not make the inquiry of any family. With the county record and his own knowledge he can seldom err.

CONCLUSION

Nothing unusual or questionable popped out at me in the analysis of this 1850 census for my 4th great grandparents George and Hannah Longcor. I had their son Samuel, not listed in this census, as being married and in his own household by 1850. But I did find Samuel’s brother John to add to my family database. I would venture that finding the real estate and location of the land that George owned in Sparta should be my next step in further fleshing George out. Another thing added to the research to-do list….

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52 Documents in 52 Weeks #32 – Jacob Newhart’s 1900 Census

Person of Interest: Jacob Newhart
Relationship: Husband of 2nd great grandaunt Ann Maria Bonser (sister to Caroline Bonser, my 2nd great-grandmother)


Source Citation: 1900 U. S. census, Carbon County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Lower Towamensing Township, ED 11, p. 14B (penned), dwelling 279, family 300, Jacob Newhart; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 16 July 2017); citing NARA microfilm publication T623, roll 1390.


Document Description: These documents are part of the Twelfth Census of the United States which was taken in 1900, at the turn of the century. It is the twelfth census taken since 1790. The U.S. census counts every resident in the United States. It is mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution and takes place every 10 years. The  U.S. Census Bureau is responsible for taking the censuses. After 72 years (and not before owing to privacy reasons), the records are released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration. In accordance with the 72-Year Rule, the National Archives released the 1900 records to the public in 1972.  The U.S. Census Bureau provides the interested researcher a great overview of each census. In the 1900 overview, we find that “Hawaii, which had been annexed in 1898, was included in the census for the first time.” Census day for this census was 01 June 1900 and William McKinley (left, Photo Source: http://www.census.gov) was the president on that day.[1]

Per the 1900 overview:

“In the act authorizing the 1900 census, Congress limited census content to questions dealing with population, mortality, agriculture, and manufacturing. Reports on these topics, called “Census Reports,” were to be published by June 30, 1902. The act also authorized special census agents to collect statistics relating to incidents of deafness, blindness, insanity, juvenile delinquency, and the like; as well as on religious bodies; utilities; mining; and transportation, among others. These statistics were to be collected following the completion of the regular census. The preparation of the special reports developed from these statistics was to be accomplished in such a way so as to not interfere with the completion of the Census Reports.”

Both Ancestry.com (fee site) and FamilySearch.org (free) offers digitized copies of the census and are searchable by name.


Document Scan/Transcription: Numbers relate to columns on the population schedule.

Page 3 Header
State: Pennsylvania; County: Carbon; Name of Incorporated Place: Lower Towamensing Township; S.D. No.: 3; E.D. No.: 11; Enumerated by me on the 26th day of June, 1900; Enumerator: Ambrose E. Noll; Sheet No.: 14B.

Page 3B Detail
lines 52-58, Caroline, Robert and William Repsher, Lilian, Jennie and Elizabeth Cobb, and Harry Sharbaugh Jr. [respectively with ; between]

Place of Abode
Street Name: [blank]
House Number: [blank]
1. Dwelling number in order of visitation: 279
2. Family number in order of visitation: 300

Name
3. Name: Newhart, Jacob; —-, Ann M; —-. Della,; —-. Emma; —-, Mary E.; —-, Harry R.; —-, George E.; —-, Beulah M; Bonser, Emmaline

Relation
4. Relation: Head; Wife; Daughter; Daughter; Daughter; Son; Son; Daughter; M-in-law

Physical Description
5. Color or race: W; W; W; W; W; W; W; W; W
6. Sex: M; F; F; F; F; M; M; F; F
7. Date of birth, month and year: Feb 1862; Oct 1860; May 1885; July 1891; Sept 1893; Apr 1895; Apr 1897; June 1899; Mar 1830
8. Age at last birthday: 38; 39; 15; 8; 6; 5; 3; 11/12; 70
9. Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced: M; M; S; S; S; S; S; S; Wd
10. Number of years married: 14; 14; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
11. Mother of how many children: [blank]; 10; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
12. Number of these children still living: [blank]; 7; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Nativity
13. Place of birth of person: Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania
14. Place of birth of father of person: Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania
15. Place of birth of mother of person: Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania

Citizenship
16. Year of immigration to the United States: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
17. Number of years in the United States: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
18. Naturalization: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Occupation, Trade, or Profession
19. Occupation: Carpenter; [blank]; [blank]; At school; At school; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
20. Months not employed: 3; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Education
21. Attended school:  [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; 6; 3;  [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
22. Can read: Yes; Yes; Yes; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; Yes
23. Can write: Yes; Yes; Yes; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; No
24. Can speak English: Yes; Yes; Yes; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; Yes

Ownership of Home
25. Owned or rented: R; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
26. Owned free or mortgaged: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
27. Farm or home: H; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
28. Number of farm schedule:  [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]


Analysis: The above listings/transcriptions are a bit hard to read, I admit it. So why go through the pain of typing it all out? It forced me to look at every single box and tick mark and code and notation. So, let’s put the above in a more user-friendly, narrative format:

Jacob Newhart (38, born Feb 1862) and wife Ann M. (39, born Oct 1860) were living in Lower Towamensing Township, Carbon County, Pennsylvania, with daughters Della (15, born May 1885), Emma (8, born 1891), Mary E. (6, born 1893) and Beulah M. (11/12, born June 1899), sons Harry R. (5, born Apr 1895) and George E. ( 3, born Apr 1897), and Ann’s widowed mother Emmaline Bonser (70, born Mar 1830). Jacob was renting the home they were living in when enumerator Ambrose E. Noll visited the household on 26 June 1900 to record the family’s information. Mr. Noll was working in his Supervisor’s District of 3 which oversaw Enumeration District 11. In order of visitation, the family was labeled as living in dwelling #279 and as family #300.

Jacob and Ann had been married for 14 years which makes their marriage year around 1886. Ann had ten children by 1900 of which seven were still living. Widowed mother-in-law Emmaline had eleven children by 1900 of which six were still living. Everyone in the household was born in Pennsylvania as were all their parents. 

Jacob was working as a carpenter and reported that he hadn’t worked three months out of the last year. Two children, Emma and Mary, were at school. Emma went for six months and Mary for three months. Parents Jacob and Ann, along with Della and Emma can read, write and speak English. Mother-in-law Emmaline can read and speak English but was reported as not being able to read it. 

Jacob and Ann Newhart took Emmaline Bonser into their household sometime before 1900. Unless Emmaline was invalid, she must have been a great help to the household with six children under the age of 15. If she was invalid, Ann certainly would have had her hands full running the household.

I was familiar with Monroe County as many of the Repshers are there but had to take a look to see where Carbon County was located in Pennsylvania. Turns out, it abuts Monroe County on the left side:

Carbon County, Pennsylvania

Monroe County, Pennsylvania

Instructions to the enumerators are a good way to make sure you understand what each item on the census means. The instructions for the 1900 are found on a handy website called IPUMS which stands for the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. From these instructions, we learn a bit about the way the states are divided up:

“74. Township or other division of county.-Every county is divided into parts, and the sum of these parts makes up the whole area of the county. But the names given to these county divisions differ widely. In the north central states, except Wisconsin, and also in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and California they are called townships. In New England, New York, and Wisconsin they are called towns. In the South and far West they are usually called districts or precincts; but in Mississippi they are called beats; in Louisiana wards; in Delaware hundreds.”

Further perusing the instructions for the 1900 census at IPUMS shows that:

  • Care was to be taken to get a person’s exact age. Enumerators were warned that, “Many a person who can tell the month and year of his birth will be careless or forgetful in stating the years of his age, and so an error will creep into the census. This danger can not be entirely avoided, but asking the question in two forms will prevent it in many cases.”
  • Women in the household were to provide the number of children they had and it does provide clarification about stillborn children. “This questions applies only to women, and its object is to get the number of children each woman has had, and whether the children are not living on the census day. Stillborn children are not to be counted.”
  • Some instructions around nativity were provided:
    • Write Ireland, England, Scotland, or Wales rather than Great Britain. Write Hungary or Bohemia rather than Austria for persons born in Hungary or Bohemia, respectively. Write Finland rather than Russia for persons born in Finland.
    • Note, also, that the language spoken is not always a safe guide to the birthplace. this is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly three-fourths of the Swiss speak German. In case a person speaks German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Austria, or Switzerland.
    • In case the persons speaks Polish, as Poland is not now a country, inquire whether the birthplace was what is now known as German Poland or Austrian Poland, and enter the answer accordingly as Poland (Ger.), Poland (Aust..), or Poland (Russ.).
  • Occupation questions applied to persons 10 years and older. Special care was to be given to ascertain what exactly the person labored at. “Indicate in every case the kind of work done or character of service rendered. do not state merely the article made or worked upon, or the place where the work is done. For example, the reply “carriage builder,” or “works in carriage factory,” is unsatisfactory, because men of different trades, such as blacksmiths, joiners, wheelwrights, painters, upholsterers, work together in building carriages. Such an answer, therefore, does not show what kind of work the person performs.”
  • Space was at a premium in Column 19 (occupation), so some abbreviations were given to the enumerator to use:
  • Occupation instructions were quite extensive. They ran from #153 to #223 with instructions on how to distinguish fisherman, mechanics, peddlers, teamsters, salesman, etc.
  • Home was defined as “By the word “home” in the census is meant any place of abode inhabited by any person or person, whether it is a house, a tent, a boat, or whatever it may be. If any such place of abide is inhabited by more than one family, it is the home of each of them, and it may accordingly be counted as two or more homes instead of one.”

Sometimes, handwritten notations were added after the censuses were compiled. The only hand notation found on the page was a “0976” written at the top right in the header section. The page before this one has “0967,” the page after has “0981,” and the page after that has “0996.” It is unclear what these were being used for or if they were a running tally of some sort.

CONCLUSION

This was a good exercise in tracking down my 3rd greatgrandmother, Emmaline Bonser, in the 1900 United States census. I found her living with her daughter and son-in-law Ann and Jacob Newhart. While Jacob labored as a carpenter, Emmaline was most likely a significant help to Ann running the Newhart household. The Newhart family in Carbon County, Pennsylvania, was not too far from the rest of the Repshers located in Monroe County.


[1] https://www.census.gov/history/www/through_the_decades/overview/1900.html

52 Documents in 52 Weeks #23 – Andrew Mery’s 1930 Census

Person of Interest: Andrew Leo Mery
Relationship: Husband of my great grand aunt Jennie (Repsher) Mery


Source Citation: 1930 U. S. census, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, East Stroudsburg, ED 45-6, page 3A (penned), dwelling 51, family 56, Andrew Mary; digital image, Ancestry.com (http:www.ancestry.com : accessed 26 May 2017); citing NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 2080.


Photo Source: http://www.census.gov

Document Description: These documents are part of the Fifteenth Census of the United States which was taken in 1930, shortly after the stock market crash which occurred on 29 October 1929. Herbert Hoover was the president on the day of the census. It is the fifteenth census taken since 1790. The U.S. census counts every resident in the United States. It is mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution and takes place every 10 years. The U.S. Census Bureau is responsible for taking the censuses. After 72 years (and not before owing to privacy reasons), the records are released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration. In accordance with the 72-Year Rule, the National Archives released the 1930 records to the public in 2002.  The U.S. Census Bureau provides the interested researcher a great overview of each census. In the 1930 overview, we find that Congress legislated The Fifteenth Census Act, which was approved on June 18, 1929, and that it authorized “a census of population, agriculture, irrigation, drainage, distribution, unemployment, and mines [to be] taken by the Director of the Census.” The unemployment piece of the census became vitally important after the stock market crash.

According to the 1930 overview site, some crisis and controversies arose from the data collected during the census:

“In the time between the passage of the act and census day, the stock market crashed and the nation plunged into the Great Depression. The public and academics wanted quick access to the unemployment information collected in the 1930 census. The Census Bureau had not planned to process the unemployment information it had collected – which some statisticians considered unreliable – until quite a bit later and was unequipped to meet these demands. When it did rush its data on unemployment out, the numbers it reported were attacked as being too low. Congress required a special unemployment census for January 1931; the data it produced confirmed the severity of the situation.

Both Ancestry.com (fee site) and FamilySearch.org (free) offers digitized copies of the census and are searchable by name.


Document Scan/Transcription: Numbers relate to columns on the population schedule
Abbreviations to be used (found at the bottom of the schedule)
[Use no abbreviations for State or country of birth or for mother tongue (Columns 18, 19, 20 and 21)]
Col. 6 – Indicate the home-maker in each family by the letter “H,” following the word which shows relationship, as “Wife – H”
Col. 7 – Owned – O, Rented – R
Col. 9 – Radio set – R, make no entry for families having no radio set
Col. 11 – Male – M, Female – F
Col. 12 – White – W, Negro – Neg, Mexican – Mex, Indian – In, Chinese – Ch, Japanese – Jp, Filipino – Fil, Hindu – Hin, Korean – Kor, Other races – Spell out in full
Col. 14 – Single – S, Married – M, Widowed – Wd, Divorced – D
Col. 23 – Naturalized – Na, First Papers – Pa, Alien – Al
Col. 27 – Employer – E, Wage or salary worker – W, Working on own account – O, Unpaid worker, member of the family – NP
Col. 31 – World War – WW, Spanish-American – Sp, Civil War – Civ, Philippine Insurrection – Phil, Boxer Rebellion – Box, Mexican Expedition – Mex

Entries are Required in the Several Columns as Follows (found at the bottom of the schedule):
Cols. 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 25 – For all persons.
Cols. 7, 8, 9, and 10 – For all heads of families only. (Col. 8 requires no entry for farm family.)
Col. 15 – For married persons only.
Col. 17 – For all persons 10 years of age and over.
Cols. 21, 22, and 23 – For all foreign-born persons.
Col. 24 – For all person 10 years of age and over.
Cols. 26, 27, and 28 – For all persons for whom an occupation is reported in Col. 25.
Col. 30 – For all males 21 years of age and over.

Page 3 Header
State: Pennsylvania; County: Monroe; Name of Incorporated Place: East Stroudsburg Borough; S.D. No.: 11; E.D. No.: 45-6; Enumerated by me on April 3, 1930; Enumerator: Olive S. Kistler; Sheet No.: 3A; stamped page number: 68.

Page 3A Detail
lines 40-47, Andrew L., Jennie F., Blanche C., John A., Jane E., Leona M., Raymond L., and Kenneth A. Sharbaugh [respectively with ; between]

Place of Abode
1. Street, Avenue, Road, etc: Elizabeth St.
2. House number: 87
3. Number of dwelling: 51
4. Number of family in order of visitation: 56

Name and Relation
5. Name: Mery, Andrew; —- Jennie F.; —- Blanche C.; —- John A.; —- Jane E.; —- Leona M.; —- Raymond L.; Sharbaugh, Kenneth A.
6. Relation: Head; Wife – H; Daughter; Son; Daughter; Son; Daughter; Daughter; Son; Nephew

House Data
7. House Owned or Rented: O; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
8. Value of home, if owned, or monthly rental, if rented: 6,000; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
9. Radio Set: R; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
10. Does this family live on a farm: No, [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Personal Description
11. Sex: M; F; F; M; F; F; M; M
12. Color or race: W; W; W; W; W; W; W; W; W
13. Age at last birthday: 34; 28; 9; 7; 5; 3-10/12; 1-10/12; 19
14. Marital condition: M; M; S; S; S; S; S; S
15. Age at first marriage: 24; 18; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Education
16.  Attended school or college anytime since Sept. 1, 1929: no; no; yes; yes; no; no; no; no
17. Whether able to read and write: yes; yes; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; yes

Place of Birth
18. Person: Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania
19. Father: France; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania
20. Mother: France; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania

Mother Tongue (or Foreign language) of Native Born
21. Language spoken in home before coming to the U.S.: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
A. State or M.T.: 58; 58; 58; 58; 58; 58; 58; 58
B. Country: 12; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
C. Nativity: O; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Citizenship, etc.
22. Year of immigration to the U.S: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
23. Naturalization: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
24. Whether able to speak English: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Occupation and Industry
25. Occupation: Tire dealer, none, none, none, none, none, none, Sales man
26. Industry: Auto tire shop, [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; Auto tire shop
D. Code: 8289, [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; 4589
27. Class of Worker: E, [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; W

Employment
28. Whether actually at work yesterday (or last regular work day), yes or no: yes; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
29. If no, number on employment schedule: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Veterans
30. Whether a veteran of U.S. military or naval forces, yes or no: yes; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
31. What war or expedition: W.W.; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Farm
32. Number of farm schedule: yes; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Analysis: The above listings/transcriptions are a bit hard to read, I admit it. So why go through the pain of typing it all out? It forced me to look at every single box and tick mark and code and notation. So, let’s put the above in a more user-friendly, narrative format:

On 01 April 1930, Andrew L. Mery (34), head of household, was living in the borough of East Stroudsburg, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, with wife Jennie F. (28) and daughters Blanche C. (9), Jane E. (5), and Leona M. (3-10/12), sons John A. (7) and Raymond L. (1-10/12) and nephew Kenneth Sharbaugh (19). Andrew owned the house, valued at $6,000, on 87 Elizabeth St. when enumerator Olive S. Kistler visited the household on 03 April 1930 to record the family’s information. Ms. Kistler was working in her Supervisor’s District of 11 which oversaw Enumeration District 45-6. In order of visitation, the family was labeled as living in dwelling #51 and as family #56. The family owns a radio set.

Andrew was married when he was 24 years old and Jennie was 18. Everyone else in the household is single. Blanche and John were the only ones in school. Andrew was born in Pennsylvania but his parents were born in France. Everyone else was born in Pennsylvania as were their parents.

Andrew was a tire dealer within the auto tire shop industry. He was an employer and, since nephew Kenneth is working as a salesman in the auto tire shop industry, he most likely employs Kenneth in the shop. Andrew worked yesterday (or the last regular working day),  although Kenneth’s answer was blank.

Andrew was also a veteran of the World War. There is no designation for I or II since World War II had yet to occur. 

A family photo corroborates that fact that Andrew was a tire shop owner. I have a wonderful photo of his shop located in East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. The people aren’t identified, but I’m pretty sure Andrew was the gentlemen wearing the tie and white shirt and highly suspect that his nephew was the young man on left. Looking at the detail in the photo shows that they sold the General Tire brand of tires and Sinclair gas. I also suspect that the family may have lived over the shop given the architecture of the building.

It is unclear why Kenneth Sharbaugh was living with the Mery family. Was it because Andrew employed him? How long had he been living with them? How was he nephew, through Andrew’s sister or Jennie’s sister? All interesting questions that this census, taken by itself, does not answer.

Instructions to the enumerators are a good way to make sure you understand what each item on the census means. The instructions for the 1920 are found on a handy website called IPUMS which stands for the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Perusing the instructions for the 1930 census at IPUMS shows that:

  • How names are to be written.-Enter first the last name or surname, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any, except that where a person usually writes his first initial and his middle names, as “J. Henry Brown,” you should write “Brown, J. Henry,” rather than “Brown, John H.”
  • Occupants of an institution or school, living under a common roof, should be designated as officer, inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, etc.; and in the case of the chief officer his title should be used, as warden, principal, superintendent, etc., instead of the word “head.” Pupils who live at the school only during the school term are not usually to be enumerated at the school.
  • Owned homes.-A home is to be classed as owned if it is owned wholly or in part by the head of the family living in the home or by the wife of the head, or by a son, or a daughter, or other relativeliving in the same house with the head of the family. It is not necessary that full payment for the property should have been made or that the family should be the sole owner.
  • Negroes.-A person of mixed white and Negro blood should be returned as a Negro, no matter how small the percentage of Negro blood. Both black and mulatto persons are to be returned as Negroes, without distinction. A person of mixed Indian and Negro blood should be returned a Negro, unless the Indian blood predominates and the status as an Indian is generally accepted in the community.
  • Indians.-A person of mixed white and Indian blood should be returned as Indian, except where the percentage of Indian blood is very small, or where he is regarded as a white person by those in the community where he lives.
  • Persons retired or incapacitated.- Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or other reasons are no longer following any occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect. If living on their own income, or if they are supported by other persons or institutions, or if they work only occasionally or only a short time each day, the return should be none.
  • Unusual occupations for women.-There are many occupations, such as carpenter and blacksmith, which women usually do not follow. Therefore, if you are told that a woman follows an occupation which is very peculiar or unusual for a woman, verify the statement.
  • Those men are to be counted as “veterans” who were in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps of the United States during the period of any United States war, even though they may not have gotten beyond the training camp. A World War veteran would have been in the service between 1917 and 1921; a Spanish-American War veteran, between 1898 and 1902; a Civil War veteran, between 1861 and 1866.

When recording country of birth, some special attention was given to countries affected by World War I:

  • Since it is essential that each foreign-born person be credited to the country in which his birthplace is now located, special attention must be given to the six countries which lost a part of their territory in the readjustments following the World War. These six countries are as follows:

    Austria, which lost territory to Czechoslovakia, Italy, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Rumania.
    Hungary, which lost territory to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Poland, Rumania, and Yugoslavia.
    Bulgaria, which lost territory to Greece and Yugoslavia.
    Germany, which lost territory to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Danzig, Denmark, France, Lithuania, and Poland.
    Russia, which lost territory to Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Turkey.
    Turkey, which lost territory to Greece and Italy and from which the following areas became independent:
    Iraq (Mesopotamia); Palestine (including Transjordan); Syria (including Lebanon); and various States
    and Kingdoms in Arabia (Asir, Hejaz, and Yemen).

  • If the person reports one of these six countries as his place of birth or that of his parents, ask specifically whether the birthplace is located within the present area of the country; and if not, find out to what country it has been transferred. If a person was born in the Province of Bohemia, for example, which was formerly in Austria but is now a part of Czechoslovakia, the proper return for country of birth is Czechoslovakia. If you can not ascertain with certainty the present location of the birthplace, where this group of countries is involved, enter in addition to the name of the country, the name of the Province or State in which the person was born, as Alsace-Lorraine, Bohemia, Croatia, Galicia, Moravia, Slovakia, etc., or the city, as Warsaw, Prague, Strasbourg, etc.

One instruction in particular popped out at me as a lesson in looking at censuses: “Enumerators must make a special effort to obtain returns for all infants and young children. Children under 1 year of age, in particular, have frequently been omitted from the enumeration in past censuses.” This could explain the lack of finding someone (negative evidence) who should have been listed as a person in a household in a prior census, especially if they were less than 1 year of age.

This census also has some notations in the column labeled D for the family members that are employed. Andrew had “8289” and his nephew Kenneth had “4589.”  IPUMS also is handy for looking up industry codes. Andrew’s code translates to “Retail dealers, automobiles and accessories” but Kenneth’s is not listed in this table. So, I checked on Steve Morse’s One-Step pages, and found that Kenneth was classified as a salesman at an “Automobile agency or accessories store; Automobile filling station; Automobile service station (filling station).” Both make sense and match what the 1930 has listed for them as occupations.

CONCLUSION

Andrew and Jennie Mery’s family seems like the typical family found in 1930. They have five children together and have taken in Kenneth Sharbaugh. What is unclear is how the stock market crash affected them. It may have been too early for the effects to trickle down to his tire shop. Some research into city directories between 1931 and the next census in 1940 might help to figure out if his tire shop survived the extreme downturn in the economy.

52 Documents in 52 Weeks #18 – John Joseph Repsher’s 1880 Census

Person of Interest: John Joseph Repsher
Relationship: Paternal 2nd great grandfather


Source Citation: 1880 U. S. census, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Jackson Corner, ED 220, p. 5 (penned), p. 290 (stamped) dwelling 36, family 40, John Repsher; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 25 April 2017); citing NARA microfilm publication T9, roll 1157.


Document Description: These documents are part of the Tenth Census of the United States which was taken in 1880. It is the tenth census taken since 1790. The U.S. census counts every resident in the United States. It is mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution and takes place every 10 years. The U.S. Census Bureau is responsible for taking the censuses. After 72 years (and not before owing to privacy reasons), the records are released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration.  The U.S. Census Bureau provides the interested researcher a great overview of each census. In the 1880 overview, we find that Rutherford B. Hayes was president, that the act authorizing the 1880 census gave supervision of the enumeration to a body of officers, known as supervisors of the census, who were specifically chosen for work on the census, that the superintendent of the census and all supervisors were to be presidential appointees and were subject to Senate confirmation and that the terms of both were to expire when the census results were compiled and published.

According to the 1880 overview site, the details of the enumeration were this:

“Each supervisor was responsible for recommending the organization of his district for enumeration, choosing enumerators for the district and supervising their work, reviewing and transmitting the returns from the enumerators to the central census office, and overseeing the compensation for enumerators in each district.

“The census act required each enumerator ‘to visit personally each dwelling house in his sub-division, and each family therein, and each individual living out of a family in any place of abode, and by inquiry made of the head of such family, or of the member there of deemed most credible and worthy of trust, or of such individual living out of a family, to obtain each and every item of information and all the particulars.’ In case no one was available at a family’s usual place of abode, the enumerator was directed by the law ‘to obtain the required information, as nearly as may be practicable, from the family or families, or person or persons, living nearest to such place of abode.’

“The census act also provided for the collection of detailed data on the condition and operation of railroad corporations, incorporated express companies, and telegraph companies, and of life, fire, and marine insurance companies (using Schedule No.4 – Social Statistics). Fines were to be imposed on officials of ‘every corporation…who shall…willfully neglect or refuse to give true and complete answers to any inquiries authorized by this act.’

“In addition, the superintendent of census was required to collect and publish statistics of the population, industries, and resources of Alaska, with as much detail as was practical. An enumeration was also made of all untaxed Indians within the jurisdiction of the United States.

“The 1880 decennial census was taken on five schedules: Population, Mortality, Agriculture, Social Statistics, and Manufacturing.”

Both Ancestry.com (fee site) and FamilySearch.org (free) offers digitized copies of the census and are searchable by name. The History and Growth of the United States Census: 1790 – 1890 was a document prepared for the Senate Committee on the Census in 1900 and as written by Carroll D. Wright, the Commissioner of Labor, and William C. Hunt, Chief Statistician of the 12th census. If you’re into statistics or reading up on the historical background of the censuses, this is a great document to dig into.


Documents Scan/Transcription: Numbers relate to columns on the population schedule

Notes found either at the top or the bottom of the schedule
Note A. – The Census Year  begins June 1, 1879 and ends May 31, 1880
Note B. – All persons will be included in the Enumeration who were living on the 1st day of June, 1880. No others will. children BORN SINCE June 1, 1880, will be OMITTED. Members of Families who have DIED SINCE June 1, 1880, will be INCLUDED
Note C. – Questions Nos. 13, 14, 22 and 23 are not to be asked in respect to persons under 10 years of age.
Note D. – In making entries in columns 9, 10, 11, 12, 16 to 23, an affirmative mark only will be used-thus /., except in the case of divorced persons, column 11, when the letter “D” is to be used.
Note E. – Question No. 12 will only be asked in cases where an affirmative answer has been given to either question 10 or to question 11.
Note F. – Question No. 14 will only be asked in cases when a gainful occupation has been reported in column 13.
Note G. – In column 7 an abbreviation in the name of the month may be used, as Jan., Apr., Dec.

Page 5 Header
State: Pennsylvania; County: Monroe; Inhabitants in: Jackson Corners; S.D. No.: 5; E.D. No.: 220; Enumerated by me on the 10th day of June 1880; Enumerator: Thomas D. Metzgar; penned Page No.: 5; stamped Page No.: 290.

Page 5 Detail
lines 24-27, John, Caroline, Emma and Mary E. [respectively with ; between]

Place of Abode
Street Name: [blank]
House Number: [blank]
1. Dwelling number in order of visitation: 36
2. Family number in order of visitation: 40

Household Data
3. Name: Repsher John; —- Caroline; —- Emma; —- Mary E.
4. Color: W; W; W; W
5. Sex: M; F; F; F
6. Age at last birthday prior to 01 June 1880: 25; 23; 3; 1
7. If born within census year, month of birth: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
8. Relationship to head of household: [blank]; wife, daughter, daughter

Civil Condition
9. Single: [blank]; [blank]; /; /
10. Married: /; /; [blank]; [blank]
11. Widowed, Divorced d.: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
12. Married during census year:  [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Occupation
13. Profession, occupation or trade: Laborer; keeping house; [blank]; [blank]
14. Number of month unemployed during census year: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Health
15. Is person sick or incapacitated on the day of the enumeration: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
16. Blind: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
17. Deaf and Dumb: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
18. Idiotic: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
19: Insane: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
20. Maimed, crippled, bedridden or otherwise disabled: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Education
21. Attend school within the census year:  [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
22. Cannot read: [blank]; [blank]; /; /
23. Cannot write: [blank]; [blank]; /; /

Nativity
24. Place of birth: Pa; ‘”; “; ”
25. Place of birth of father: Pa; ‘”; “; ”
26. Place of birth of mother: Pa; ‘”; “; “


Analysis: The above listings/transcriptions are a bit hard to read, I admit it. So why go through the pain of typing it all out? It forced me to look at every single box and tick mark and code and notation. So, let’s put the above in a more user-friendly, narrative format:

On 01 June 1880, John Repsher (25) was living with his wife Caroline (23) and two young daughters, Emma (3) and Mary E. (1). The family was living in Jackson Corners, Monroe County, Pennsylvania  when Thomas D. Metzgar arrived to enumerator them on 10 June 1880. Mr. Metzgar was working in his Supervisor’s District of 5 which oversaw Enumeration District 220. In order of visitation, the family was labeled as living in dwelling #37 and as family #40.

John was working as a laborer and Caroline was keeping house. John and Caroline were listed as married and their two daughters as single. All were listed as being born in Pennsylvania as were each of the individuals’ parents. The family was healthy in that none of the columns for blindness, deaf and dumbness, idiocy, insanity, or disability were checked. The census indicated that both John and Caroline could read and write.

This is a fairly straightforward census with John and Caroline just beginning what would evenutally turn out to be 14-child family. The 1880 census tells the reader the specific relationships within the family group, so no guessing is necessary. Nothing pops out as being odd with this family. However, it doesn’t hurt to go look at the enumerator instructions to see how things were to be reported. The IPUMS, which stands for the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, website has a handy place to look up all enumerator instructions for the 1880 census. Some of the instructions found there include:

  • The word family, for the purposes of the census, includes persons living alone, as previously described, equally with families in the ordinary sense of that term, and also all larger aggregations of people having only the tie of a common roof and table. A hotel, with all its inmates, constitutes but one family within the meaning of this term. A hospital, a prison, an asylum is equally a family for the purposes of the census. On the other hand, the solitary inmate of a cabin, a loft, or a room finished off above a store constitutes a family in the meaning of the census act. In the case, however, of tenement houses and of the so-called “fiats” of the great cities, as many families are to be recorded as there are separate tables.
  • It is desirable that the children of the family proper should follow in the order of their ages, as will naturally be the case.
  • Color.-It must not be assumed that, where nothing is written in this column, “white” is to be understood. The column is always to be filled. Be particularly careful in reporting the class mulatto. The word is here generic, and includes quadroons, octoroons, and all persons having any perceptible trace of African blood. Important scientific results depend upon the correct determination of this class in schedules 1 and 5.
  • The term “housekeeper” will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as “keeping house.” Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.
  • The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worth while to make distinctions in the character of work. Report all as “domestic servants.”
  • Regarding occupation, use the word “huckster” in all cases where it applies. [Huckster is defined as a person who sells small items, either door-to-door or from a stall or small store and of which the goods may be of questionable value.]

CONCLUSION

Nothing unusual or questionable popped out at me in the analysis of this 1880 census for John and Caroline Repsher. I did find them with their two eldest daughters, Emma and Mary E., and this corroborates other family history information. It is interesting that all the health questions were included but the family seems to be healthy. I think the enumerator instructions were more entertaining this time than the analysis!

52 Documents in 52 Weeks #13 – Caroline (Bonser) Respher’s 1920 Census

Caroline (Bonser) Repsher and husband John J. Repsher

Person of Interest: Caroline (Bonser) Respher
Relationship: 2nd Great grandmother


Source Citation: 1920 U. S. census, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, East Stroudsburg, ED 48, p. 3B (penned), dwelling 52, family 56, Caroline Repsher; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 23 April 2017); citing NARA microfilm publication T625, roll 1603.


Document Description: These documents are part of the Fourteenth Census of the United States which was taken in 1920, shortly after the end of World War I. It is the fourteenth census taken since 1790. The U.S. census counts every resident in the United States. It is mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution and takes place every 10 years. The U.S. Census Bureau is responsible for taking the censuses. After 72 years (and not before owing to privacy reasons), the records are released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration. In accordance with the 72-Year Rule, the National Archives released the 1920 records to the public in 1992.  The U.S. Census Bureau provides the interested researcher a great overview of each census. In the 1920 overview, we find that the census date was changed to 01 January (it was April 15th in 1910) based on a request from the Department of Agriculture. They argued that more people would be home in January compared to April and that farmers would have a better recollection in January of the crops harvested in the prior fall.

According to the 1920 overview site, the details of the enumeration were this:

“For the 1920 census, “usual place of abode” became the basis for enumeration. Individuals were enumerated as residents of the place in which they regularly slept, not where they worked or might be visiting. People with no regular residence, including “floaters” and members of transient railroad or construction camps, were enumerated as residents of the place where they were when the count was taken. Enumerators were also instructed to ask if any family members were temporarily absent; if so, these people were to be listed either with the household or on the last schedule for the census subdivision.

“The format and information in the 1920 census schedules closely resembled that of the 1910 census. The 1920 census, however, did not ask about unemployment on the day of the census, nor did it ask about service in the Union or Confederate army or navy. Questions about the number of children born and how long a couple had been married were also omitted. The bureau modified the enumeration of inmates of institutions and dependent, defective, and delinquent classes. The 1920 census included four new questions: one asking the year of naturalization and three about mother tongue. There was no separate schedule for Indians in 1920.

“Because of the changes in some international boundaries following World War I, enumerators were instructed to report the province (state or region) or city of persons declaring they or their parents had been born in Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, or Turkey. If a person had been born in any other foreign country, only the name of the country was to be entered.

“The instructions to enumerators did not require that individuals spell out their names. Enumerators wrote down the information given to them; they were not authorized to request proof of age, date of arrival, or other information. The determination of race was based on the enumerator’s impressions.”

Both Ancestry.com (fee site) and FamilySearch.org (free) offers digitized copies of the census and are searchable by name.


Documents Scan/Transcription: Numbers relate to columns on the population schedule.
Page 3B Header
State: Pennsylvania; County: Monroe; Name of Incorporated Place: East Stroudsburg Borough; Ward of City: District #1; S.D. No.: 7; E.D. No.: 48; Enumerated by me on the 5th day of January 1920; Enumerator: Carolyn B. Smith; Sheet No.: 3B; stamped page number does not exist.

Page 3B Detail
lines 52-58, Caroline, Robert and William Repsher, Lilian, Jennie and Elizabeth Cobb, and Harry Sharbaugh Jr. [respectively with ; between]

Place of Abode
1. Street, Avenue, Road, etc: North Courtland St.
2. House number: 286
3. Number of dwelling: 52
4. Number of family in order of visitation: 56

Household Data
5. Name: Repsher Caroline; —- Robert; —- William F.; Cobb Lillian; Cobb Jennie; Cobb Elizabeth; Sharbaugh Harry Jr.
6. Relation: Head; Son; Son; Daughter; Daughter, Granddaughter, Grandson
7. Tenure, home owned or rented: R; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
8. Tenure, if owned, free, or mortgaged: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Personal Description
9. Sex: F; M; M; F; F; F; M
10. Color of race: W; W; W; W; W; W; W
11. Age at last birthday: 61; 22; 20; 20; 19; 1 10/12; 10/12
12. Single, married, widowed, or divorced: W; S; S; W; W; S; S

Citizenship
13. Year of immigration: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
14. Naturalized or alien: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
15. If naturalized, year of naturalization: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]

Education
16. Attend school since Sep. 1, 1919: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
17. Whether able to read: Yes; Yes; Yes; Yes; Yes; [blank]; [blank]
18. Whether able to write: Yes; Yes; Yes; Yes; Yes; [blank]; [blank]

Nativity and Mother Tongue
19. Person, place of birth: Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania,Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania
20. Person, mother tongue: German; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
21. Father, place of birth: Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania,Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania
22. Father, mother tongue: German; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]
23. Mother, place of birth: Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania,Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania
24. Mother, mother tongue: GermanGerman; German; German; German; [blank]; [blank]
25. Whether able to speak English: Yes; Yes; Yes; Yes; Yes; [blank]; [blank]

Occupation
26. Trade, profession, or particular kind of work done: none; Weaver; Weaver; none; Warper; none; none
27. Industry, business, or establishment in which at work: [blank]; Silk Mill; Silk Mill; [blank]; Silk Mill, [blank];[blank]
28. Employer, salary or wage worker, or working on own account:  [blank]; W; W; [blank]; W, [blank];[blank]
29. Number of farm schedule: [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]; [blank]


Analysis: The above listings/transcriptions are a bit hard to read, I admit it. So why go through the pain of typing it all out? It forced me to look at every single box and tick mark and code and notation. So, let’s put the above in a more user-friendly, narrative format:

On 01 January 1920, Caroline Repsher (61), head of household, was living in the borough of East Stroudsburg, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, with sons Robert Repsher (22) and William F. Repsher (20), daughters Lillian Cobb (20) and Jennie Cobb (19), granddaughter Elizabeth Cobb (1 10/12) and grandson Harry Sharbaugh Jr. (10/12). Caroline was renting the house at 286 North Courtland St. when enumerator Carolyn B. Smith visited the household on 05 January 1920 to record the family’s information. Ms. Smith was working in her Supervisor’s District of 7 which oversaw Enumeration District 48. In order of visitation, the family was labeled as living in dwelling #52 and as family #56.

There were three widowed women living in the household, Caroline, Lillian, and Jennie. Both Robert and William were listed as being single as were the two young grandchildren. No one in the household had attended school since 01 September 1919 and all but the grandchildren were able to read, write and speak English. All were listed as being born in Pennsylvania including the individuals parents. No one had any citizenship other than American. Caroline was listed as having a native tongue of German but Ms. Smith crossed out this information.  Robert, William, and Jennie were all employed by the silk mill working for wages. Robert and William were weavers and Jennie was a warper.

The basic questions asked in this 1920 census give us a brief glimpse of Caroline and some of her children. There seems to be some tragedy surrounding the family in that Caroline and two of her daughters, Lillian and Jennie, are widowed at the time of the census. Perhaps the great influenza epidemic and/or World War I, which both happened around the time of the census, had something to do with this.

The enumeration of this particular family unit brings up some interesting questions and highlight the dangers of making assumptions:

  • Why did Lillian and Jennie both have the same last name of Cobb?
    • Could the enumerator have made a mistake?
    • Could the two girls have both married men with the same last name?
    • Perhaps the sisters married brothers or cousins named Cobb?
  • And which daughter, Lillian or Jennie, did the granddaughter Elizabeth Cobb belong to, if either?
  • And why was grandson, Harry Sharbaugh Jr. living with Caroline?
    • Where was Harry Sharbaugh Sr. and how was he related to the family?
    • Was he the son of another of Caroline’s daughters and, if so, where is she?
  • Were William and Lillian truly the same age at 20 years old?
    • Was this an enumerator mistake?
    • Or perhaps they were twins?

The census itself does not answer any of these questions. That makes this census evidence (relevance of information) relating to the above questions indirect in nature and this census evidence must be combined with other sources of information. For example, a hand-written family group sheet prepared by my great grandmother, Anna K. Repsher, corroborates that Lillian was married to a man named Frank Cobb and that he died on 06 October 1918.[1] A daughter named Elizabeth was listed as a child of this union and again corroborates that she was a granddaughter of Caroline as found in the census. Another family group sheet has some remarks about Jennie and her first marriage to a man named Frederick Cobb who died 03 October 1918 in the flu epidemic.[2] But even with this information, one should not assume that Frank and Frederick were brothers.

Some of the languages defined for the 1920 census

Instructions to the enumerators are a good way to make sure you understand what each item on the census means. The instructions for the 1920 are found on a handy website called IPUMS which stands for the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Perusing the instructions for the 1920 census at IPUMS shows that:

  • The list of principal foreign languages for column 20 (mother tongue) consisted of a list of 63 languages ranging from Albanian to Magyar to Yiddish.
  • Regarding occupations the enumerator were told that “Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or otherwise are no longer following an occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect.”
  • For person with more than one occupation, the enumerators were told that “If a person has two occupations, return only the more important one-that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, return the one at which he spends the more time. For example: Return a man as farmer if he gets more of his income from farming, although he may also follow the occupation of a clergyman or preacher; but return him as a clergyman if he gets more of his income from that occupation.”
  • Working at housework was given no credit if there were no wages involved. Instructions were “In the case of a woman doing housework in her own home and having no other employment, the entry in column 26 should be none. But a woman working at housework for wages should be returned in column 26 as housekeeper, servant, or cook, or chambermaid, as the case may be; and the entry in column 27 should state the kind of place where she works, as private family, hotel, or boarding house.
  • A birth place (within the United States) of the individual had some specific instructions in that “If the person was born in the United States, give the State or Territory in which born. The words “United States” are not sufficiently definite. A person born in what is now West Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma should be so reported, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name. Do not abbreviate the names of States and Territories.” This tells you that the name at the time of the census was used, not the name of the place at the time of the person’s birth. A subtle but important piece of information.

This census also has some notations on the far right for the family members that are employed. Robert, William and Jennie all have “528” handwritten in the far right hand column. IPUMS also is handy for looking up industry codes. This one is fairly straightforward in that 528 stands for silk mills within the semi-skilled operatives in the textile industries. Since the codes were added after the census was taken, they’re not really not much aide except to help decipher some enumerator’s poor handwriting. If you can’t make out the scribbling in the industry column, the additional codes may help with that.

CONCLUSION

The fact that Caroline, Jennie, and Lillian were all widowed by 01 January 1920 suggests some obvious further research into their husbands’ deaths and makes me want to ferret out information on their marriages. Harry Sharbaugh living in the household suggests that yet another of Caroline’s daughters was married but has passed away by the time the census was taken. It is somewhat sad to think of all the people who didn’t make it to be enumerated in this particular census within Caroline’s family.


[1] Anna (Karthaeuser) Repsher, compiler, “Family Record of J. J. Repsher Jr. and Caroline Repsher nee Bonser”; (Handwritten family group sheets, Netcong, New Jersey, 1911-1970), p. 114. Privately held by Jodi Lynn Strait, Tucson, AZ.
[2] Anna (Karthaeuser) Repsher, compiler, “Family Record of J. J. Repsher Jr. and Caroline Repsher nee Bonser”; (Handwritten family group sheets, Netcong, New Jersey, 1911-1970), p. 126. Privately held by Jodi Lynn Strait, Tucson, AZ.